History of Modern Computer 1821 to 2022.

 Computer history

In the age of modern computers, computers have come from house to house, everything from online work to data entry is done through this device called the computer.

The history of computer creation is unknown to many. The computer was born a few thousand years ago, but not a few years ago. Abacus was used to count China about three thousand years ago. It is believed that the idea of ​​making modern calculators came from this Abacus. The counting was done by rotating a few bids. The first computer thought originated from the ancient Abacus.

Thousands of years after the discovery of the abacus, with the advancement of civilization, in 1845, the French scientist Blais Pascal invented the Pascaline instrument. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz developed an improved version of the Pascaline instrument, the stepped recover, which was almost as effective as the Abacus.

In 1821, Charles Babbage invented a device called the Difference Engine, which dealt with numbers as well as information. An improved version of the device, the Analytical Engine, was invented a few days later, but the perforated punchcard could only be used once to operate the device. The device had three parts: an information delivery part, a result sharing part, and a data storage part.

The parts in modern computers are similar to those of Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine. This is why Charles Babbage is called the father of computers.

In 1890, Dr. Herman Holorith added a device called a tabulator to Charles Babbage’s instrument to facilitate the census in the United States Census, using a punchcard made of paper that could be drilled with a tabulator. And with the help of this instrument, he did in ten years the work of the census which took ten years. The success of Dr. Herman’s efforts led him to create a tabulating machine company which later became known worldwide as IBM.


The first generation of digital computers was considered from 1947 to 1956.

In 1947, two professors at the University of Pennsylvania built the computer called the ENIAC, but the first computer with memory was invented in 1949, called the EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer). The Remington Rand Company developed the UNIVAC-1 computer in 1951, which used vacuum tubes. The popular IBM-650 computer was created in 1954.

The features of first-generation computers are –

1. These computers were large in size and size.

2. The use of vacuum tubes could be seen.

3. The processing of this computer was slow.

4. Computers of this generation were extremely expensive.

5. This machine needed heat control.

6. Could not contain a large amount of information. Data retention was limited.

7. The cost of electricity was too high and too much heat was generated.

8. Punch cards and magnetic tape were used for input and output.

9. Maintenance was costly.

Examples of first-generation computers are – ENIAC, EDSAC, BINAC, UNIVAC-1, MARK, IBM-650, etc.

Second generation –

The second generation of computers was from 1958 to 1965, in 1958 a scientist named Jack Cent Clear created the Integrated Circuit or IC. Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes in second-generation computers.

Features of second-generation computer-

1. Transistors and integrated circuits were used in this generation of computers.

2. Computers were smaller in size than the first generation.

3. Use of magnetic corrosion.

4. The cost of electricity would have been much lower

5. Performance speed, programming language, and input and output devices were of high quality.

6. There was a facility for data transfer through the telephone line.

7. Prices are lower than on first-generation computers.

8. This generation of computers also needed heat control.

Examples: IBM-1401, CDC-1604, RCA-501, NCR-304, Honeywell 200, PDP-I, IBM-7000IBM-1620, GE 200, IBM-1600 etc.

Third generation

The third generation of computers is from 1973 to 1982. This generation of computers is called Third Generation or Integrated Circuit Computer because of the use of (SSI) circuits and (MSI) circuits.

Features of third-generation computers

1. This computer was much smaller in size than the second generation.

2. Integrated circuits (ICs) were widely used.

3. Introduction of output devices like video display units, line printers, etc.

4. The beginning is the use of the mouse.

5. The structure of this generation of computers is more complex.

Examples of this generation of computers are: IBM-370, PDP-8, PDP-2, GE-600, IBM 960, CDC-1700, etc.

Fourth generation

From 1973 to 2000, it was considered the fourth generation of computers. Large Scale Integration and Very Large Scale ‘Integration Microprocessors are used in this generation of computers. Windows, DOS (DOS) operating system began to be used in this generation.

The features of the fourth generation computer are –

1. The emergence and use of microprocessors began in this generation of computers.

2. Data storage capacity is much higher than before.

3. Use of different operating systems.

4. The popularity of microcomputers has increased in this generation of computers.

5. There was no need for heat control

6. Less power was required.

Examples of this generation of computers are –

IBM-3033, HP-3000, IBM-4341, TRS-40, IBM PC, DEC-10, STAR-1000, PPR-II, APPLE-II, IBM-4341


Although not much has changed in the fifth generation from 2001 to the present, the processors, memory, data storage capacity, etc. of this generation of computers are of better quality as compared to the fourth generation.

The features of this generation of computers are-

1. This generation of computers can do a lot of things fast,

2. The processor speed increases,

3. There is no need for heat control in this generation of computers.

4. The operating system is of advanced quality.

5. The use of networks and the internet in this generation of computers is also seen in general.

6. The price of this generation of computers is much lower than the previous four generations.

Examples of this generation of computers are – DEV VAX-780, Intel iPSC-1, Desktop, Laptop, Notebook, Ultrabook, Chromebook, etc.

Rate this post

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *